The minecraft client is a downloadable file that supports Windows, Mac OS, and other java supported operating systems like Linux.
The stand alone client only requires an internet connection for the first time run and for automatic updates.
There are some keys that are not changeable via Options that perform special functions within the stand alone client.
|F1||Holding this key will hide all GUI elements, including the menu and whatever item you are holding. When held while in third person, it will show you the front of your character. This was added in the Halloween Update to make taking scene screenshots easier.
Pressing F2 while F1 is held will take a screenshot and place it in %appdata%\.minecraft\screenshots.
|F3||Holding this key will show extra debug information on the top of the screen along side the Minecraft version, such as FPS (frames per second), chunk updates, available memory, and a performance graph.|
|F5||Toggles between first and third person. Third person is not advised since your cursor is always on your head.|
|F10||Gives cursor control back to Windows and freezes the game until it is clicked. (Exactly the same as pressing Escape)|
|F11||Toggles full-screen mode.However, some people are experiencing a bug while exiting from full-screen mode that causes an inescapable black screen. When that’s the case, use ALT+TAB to switch out of Minecraft AND switch it back to windowed mode.|
Note: Function keys that must be held (F1 and F3) can instead be toggled by pressing alt afterwards.